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1/ MY DOG...










       4a/ - APPEARANCE


       4b/ - COAT


       4c/ - COLOUR


       4d/ - TEMPERAMENT






        5b/ - SYRINGOMYELIA (SM)


        5c/ - UMBILICAL HERNIA


        5d/ - PUPPY MURMUR




         5f/ - WEIGHT MANAGEMENT








         7b/ - FIRST AID KIT
















He's just my dog.

He is my other eyes that can see above the clouds;

My other ears that hear above the winds,

He is part of me that can reach out into the seas.

He has told me a thousand times over that I am his reason for being.

By the way, he rests his head against my legs,

By the way, he thumps his tail at my smallest smile

By the way, he shows he is hurt when I leave without taking him,

When I am wrong, he is delighted to forgive me

When I am angry, he clowns to make me smile,

When I am happy, he is joy abounded,

When I am a fool, he ignores it,

When I succeed, he brags,

Without him, I am only another person,

With him, I am all Powerful.


He has promised to wait for me...


in Case I need him and I expect I will...

... As I always have.

He is MY DOG.



You would learn stuff like…

. When loved ones come home, always run to greet them.

. Never pass up the opportunity to go for a joyride.

. Allow the experience of fresh air and the wind in our face to be pure ecstasy.

. When it’s in your best interest – practice obedience.

. Let others know when they’ve invaded your territory.

. Take naps and stretch before rising.



For many centuries, small breeds of Spaniels have been popular in the United Kingdom. In the eleven century, in the reign of King Canute, it was illegal to hunt with any dog that could not fit through a gauge that was eleven inches in diameter. Hence, the “birth” of the Toy spaniel in the United Kingdom. Some centuries later, Toy spaniels became popular as pets, especially as pets of the royal family. In fact, King Charles Spaniel was so named because a Blenheim-coated spaniel was the children’s pet in the household of Charles I. King Charles II went so far as to issue a decree that the King Charles Spaniel could not be forbidden entrance to any public place, including the Houses of Parliament. Such Spaniels can be seen in many paintings of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. These early spaniels had longer, pointier snouts and thinner-boned limbs than today’s.


Over time, the toy spaniels were replaced in popularity by short-snouted, dome-headed dogs of Asian descent, such as the Pug and Japanese Chin. King Charles Spaniel was bred with these dogs, resulting in the similar-shaped head of today’s English Toy Spaniel breed. King Charles Spaniel remained popular at Blenheim Palace, home to the Dukes of Marlborough, where the brown and White version was the most popular – resulting in the name Blenheim for that color combination.


In the 1920s, an American named Roswell Eldrige offered twenty-five pounds as a prize for any King Charles Spaniel “of the old-fashioned type” with a longer nose, flat skull, and a lozenge (spot) in the middle of the crown of the head, sometimes called “the kiss of Buddha”, “Blenheim Spot”, “Kissing Spot”, or “Crown”. So, the breed was developed by selective breeding of short-snouted Spaniels. The result was a dog that resembled the boyhood pet of the future Charles II of England (“Cavalier King Charles”), from whence the breed derives its name.



* Rex, pet of U.S. President Ronald Reagan

* Hopper and Harley, pets of Courteney Cox and David Arquette.

* Neal, pet of Liz Taylor

* Lauren Bacall

* Frank Sinatra had 4 Cavaliers

* Controversial Dutch politician Pim Fortuyn had two Cavaliers: Kenneth and Carla

* Jennifer Love Hewitt has 1 Cavalier

* Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden owned one Cavalier

* Jim Cramer of CNBC's Mad Money has a Cavalier named Maggie

* Mischa Barton, actress, has 1 Cavalier .

* Koda Kumi, singer, has a black and tan Cavalier named Rum, which has appeared in some of her music videos.

* Sylvester Stallone has 2 Cavaliers

* Dexter, pet of Kimberlie Reinhardt

* Jeff Francoeur of the Atlanta Braves has a Cavalier

* Dash, pet of Queen V ictoria

Fictional Cavaliers:

* Elizabeth Taylor (nee Princess Dandyridge Brandywine), pet of Charlotte York in Sex and the City



     4a/ - APPEARANCE

The Cavalier is by most measures the largest toy breed: though clearly a lap dog, fully-grown adults tend to fill one rather amply. It is nonetheless quite small for a spaniel when fully-grown Cavaliers roughly comparable in size to an adolescent of a more conventional spaniel breed. Breed standards call for a height between 29 and 33 cm (12-13 inches) with a proportionate weight between 4.5 and 8.5 kg (10 and 18 lbs). Unlike most other spaniels, the Cavalier has a full-length tail well-feathered with long hair, which is typically carried aloft when walking.


     4b/ - COAT

The breed naturally grows a substantial silky coat of moderate length. Breed standards call for it to be free from curl, with a slight wave permissible. In adulthood cavaliers grow lengthy feathering on their ears, chest, legs, feet, and tail; breed standards demand this be kept long, with the feathering on the feet cited as a particularly important feature of the breed.


A cavalier’s coat may be beautiful, but, because it can be long, it is very important to keep it well groomed. This can be done by yourself, or you can hire a professional groomer. Daily brushing is recommended to ensure that the coat does not get matted and that foreign objects, such as grass and sticks, do not become entangled in the feathering.


     4c/ - COLOUR

The breed has four recognized colours:

Blenheim (rich chestnut on pearly white background);

* Tricolour (black and white with tan markings on cheeks, inside ears,

resembling eyebrows, inside legs, and on the underside of tail);

Black and Tan (black with tan markings);

* Ruby (rich reddish-brown all over).

Parti-colours are the colours that include white: Blenheim and Tricolour. The Blenheim is the most common colour, and if you want to show your Blenheim dog, extra points will be given for a rich chestnut dot placed between the eyes on the top of the forehead, called the lozenge. It is rare which makes it desirable for show breeders.


     4d/ - TEMPERAMENT

The breed is highly affectionate, and some have called the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel "the ultimate lap dog". Most dogs of the breed are playful, extremely patient and eager to please. As such, dogs of the breed are usually good with children and other dogs. A well-socialized Cavalier will not be shy about socializing with much larger dogs. (However, on occasion, this tendency can be dangerous, as many cavaliers will presume all other dogs to be equally friendly, and may attempt to greet and play with aggressive dogs.)

However, the extremely social nature of the Cavaliers means that they require almost constant companionship from humans or other dogs, and are not suited to spending long periods of time on their own. This breed is the friendliest of the toy group. They are very loyal and love cuddles.





Mitral valve disease is the most serious disease. A statistic from North America indicates that about 50 % of all Cavaliers over the age of four have a heart murmur resulting from deterioration of the mitral valve. Further, if they reach the age of ten, 99 % will have the cardiac murmur, which will change to Mitral Valve Disease. As the blood leak in heart progresses, the heart becomes enlarged and the dog can go into heartbreaking congestive heart failure.


The bad news:

Problem is that there are far too many breeders saying that they do not have this problem in their bloodlines, that their dogs are MVD free. If you ask to see a certificate from a cardiologist, they don’t have it.  And also, it is not enough to know that breeding male or female are MVD negative. You need to know about their parents and grandparents.

I get so many calls from Cavalier lovers who have lost their beloved family member to the dreaded MVD, in some cases very young. 

MVD makes your pet your patient, leaves you and your family heartbroken and robs you of your time and money as well.

Don’t be fooled by advertisements that claim heart certified.  You can check the puppy as long as you want, you won’t find it because it isn’t there yet.   You have to see if the parents and grandparents are clear.


The good news:

It doesn’t have to be that way.

In almost 15 years of breeding Cavaliers, I have never had a customer call to tell me that their dog has MVD.

I do not breed any dogs that originate in North America, except from my own kennel.

All my breeding stock comes from central Europe, where there is a very strong breeding program in place and has been for a very long time.  It is taken so seriously that now the breeders can put heart clearances from certified cardiologists on the pedigree of each dog.

You can see ticking hearts in bloodlines of my dogs, which indicate that those certificates are already registered with the Kennel Club and printed on those pedigrees.   There are many more, but it will take a long time to get all the information from older dogs and get it on the pedigree.


MVD Breeding protocol - to reduce the incidence of MVD in Cavaliers.

The disease can be decreased and the age of onset delayed by following guidelines of only breeding Cavaliers who have hearts free from MVD murmurs, and have parents, possibly grandparents as well, whose hearts were MVD murmur-free at age 5 years or later. No Cavaliers should be bred which have murmurs before age 5 years.

Some affected dogs can live for many years if they are treated to some degree with medication - but, sadly, the heart problem cuts short the lives of far too many Cavaliers. 

MVD is still the leading cause of death in Cavaliers.




In short: Syringomyelia is an extremely serious genetic condition in which cavities develop within spinal cord near the brain, and fill with fluid. It is also known as “neck scratcher’s disease” because one of its common signs is scratching in the air near the neck. Every dog coming into Europe has to be screen by MRI before can be used for breeding.

As the decades pass by, selective breeding will lead to longer lifespans.



This type of a hernia is also very common in puppies of any breed and seldom needs to be repaired and does not harm the puppy as future health is a concern. A hernia is a protrusion or bulge of a part of the body tissue or fat through the opening of the surrounding tissue. It is most likely caused when the mother Cavalier King Charles Spaniel pulls too hard on the umbilical cord at birth causing the hernia.

If the bubble cannot be pushed back up into the abdomen it is called a non-reducible hernia. If the bubble can be pushed back up into the abdomen then it is called a reducible hernia and surgery is advisable at the time of spaying or neutering the puppy.

It is essential with either condition to reduce the tissue escaping at least once daily. Turn the puppy on its back and gently massage the protrusion and slide the contents back up into the abdomen.



Some heart murmurs are called benign (or innocent or physiological), meaning there is no apparent heart disease that explains the murmur. These murmurs are often seen in puppies. This type of murmur is soft (typically a grade 2 or softer) and is not caused by underlying heart disease. An innocent flow murmur typically disappears by 4-5 months of age.




- Every 2 weeks until 3 months of age

- Once/month from 3 to 6 mo of age

- Four times/year after 6 mo of age



- Treat regularly considering potential exposure to parasites and prepatent periods (4 times/year)

- A continued surveillance of parasite prevalence in your area is recommended



When you place your hands on your pet’s side, are his/her ribs hard to feel or even impossible to feel through a layer of fat? This could mean your pet is overweight or obese, conditions that vets associate with many potentially painful and even hazardous medical problems. Your vet can tell you if your pet is overweight, ask for a weight check on your next visit. 

The rule is: you should feel the ribs and see the figure of your dog (but not to see the ribs!)

Some of the serious health effects of obesity include arthritis, heart disease, high blood pressure, breathing difficulty, diabetes, skin disease, skeletal problems and even bladder cancer, as well as several other conditions. Excess weight can affect your pet’s energy levels and ability to enjoy a full life.


There are many easily identifiable causes of weight gain in pets:

* Overfeeding – Pets with unlimited access to food often become overweight. Feeding puppies too much can create extra fat cells that stay with a pet for life. Puppies should be converted to a good quality adult food between 6 and 9 months.

Also, you can give your dog the same amount of food in a day, just give him/her more in the morning and less in the evening.


* Overeating – Many commercial foods are loaded with salt and fat. This improves the taste but can result in over-consumption.


* Feeding habits – Feeding table scraps and home cooked meals can lead to obesity.


* Treats – Watch the number of treats (we use mostly all natural “Puffed Rice”).


* Quantity – Toy dogs do not require more than 1 (one cup of food per day even as adults. Therefore you must take into consideration any other items fed to your pet during the day as part of the dog’s full daily intake.


* Lack of exercise – Too much food and too little exercise can cause weight gain and remember: letting one dog out into your yard is not an exercise, but letting two dogs out, is. 


* Age – Older, less active pets are prone to weight gain.


* Gender – Female pets are more likely to experience weight gain.


Vets recognize food plays a very important role in treating a pet that is overweight. Along with exercise, food with reduced fat and calories is essential in helping your pet lose weight and stay fit. Fiber is also a key ingredient in food used for weight loss since it reduces the caloric density of the food while providing the bulk necessary to satisfy your pet’s hunger. Once your pet has been overweight, he/she may be prone to weight gain and should have an ongoing plan based on a good diet, exercise, and regular check-ups that include regular weight checks.






2 lbs. of fat on a 20 lbs. dog = 1 lbs. of fat on a 150 lbs. human



The Dog Food Advisor is a website designed to help you make a more informed decision when shopping for dog food.


I have found as a general rule, the more well-known the dog food, the worse it is for your dog.  While conventional wisdom suggests that if a company has money to advertise the merits of its products during the Superbowl, it must surely also have the operating budget to produce a safe and healthful product.  After all, some of these well-known dog food companies are subsidiaries of multinational companies responsible for filling the shelves of our pharmacies and supermarkets with some of the most helpful products ever (Yay, disposable brooms, and whitening toothpaste!!)  How then can there be a shortage of research and development costs? 


Wrong.  The truth is, the dog foods that you don’t see commercials for, or read about in magazines are the ones that pour their budgets into researching formulations and quality ingredients.  Most well-known commercial dog foods cannot even produce an ingredient list that does not betray their cost-cutting motives, with ingredients like “animal by-products”, “soy”, "corn" and “grain meal”.  Animal by-products can include everything from hair to hooves.  Like soy and corn, these are added as a filler in order to boost the protein content of the food.  But the fact is, these proteins lack the quality to be useful to your dog nutritionally.  Sources of these animals' by-products include stockyard and zoo carcasses as well as aged, ailing, diseased animals and other animals not fit for human consumption.  These ingredients are then extruded at extremely high temperatures to produce the kibble that your dog eats every day.  The process of extrusion (which processes the kibble at extremely high temperatures) destroys much of the remaining nutrients left.  Any cost savings you may receive from purchasing these commercial foods versus premium foods, you’ll lose in volume since your dog will wind up passing most of the commercial food and you’ll just wind up feeding more.  Dogs that eat commercial food with poor ingredients pass bowel movements three times as much as dogs eating premium foods.  So if you’re buying cheaper food to save a buck, think again.  I am a staunch believer in good nutrition both for humans and dogs and that better nutrition will provide a better quality of life.


Are you sick yet?  Well, don’t shoot the messenger.  Be informed.  Isn’t your dog worth the extra effort?  Go with premium food, a company only focused on making quality pet food, whose business efforts aren't split with air fresheners and shoe shine. Always check the latest recalls on the dog food of your choice:


Ingredients To Avoid:


Notes: Always avoid any ingredients that mention the words "Byproduct". (Chicken byproduct meal…). The "Byproduct" word gives the manufacturer the ability to use parts of the chicken that was not passable for human consumption. "Byproduct" should always be a word that is found in any form in an ingredients list in a dog food you want to avoid feeding that dog food!

To help control the tartar buildup naturally, you can give your Cavalier baby carrots, celery, broccoli, and apples every few days.


Feed your new puppy premium puppy food 3x a day as per the advice of the breeder. Change the food to an adult formula after you will have your puppy spayed/neutered. At an adult age, dogs don't need as much protein as puppies do. It is a good idea to change the type of protein after finishing each bag. I also like to add just a few kibbles of dry dehydrated meat (Canisource or Huraw) - those are quite large kibbles of irregular shapes and dogs can't just swallow them, they have to actually crunch them, which helps with cleaning their teeth and they love it. 

Just a note about dogs not eating their food: 

If adult dogs don't want to eat, take the food away after a few minutes and then they will get it at the next feeding time. They can be without food for two days and if they still would not eat after 2 days, then they have to go see the vet. 


Feed puppies as per the recommendation of the breeder...3x a day... They can have their food around a little longer. They might eat a few kibbles, they go to play, come back and eat some more... You can leave the food around for them for about 1/2 hour and then take it away. I don't recommend feeding puppies by hand or even playing with the food to make them eat. Don't add any other flavor to their food either. They can get spoiled very fast. However, if they don't want to eat for more than one day = trip to the vet!





All puppies are naturally inquisitive, which can often lead to serious injury. Here are some tips on how you can make your house safer for the new arrival:

That's shocking - Young animals love to chew when they are teething. Keep electrical wires out of reach, or use a pet-repellent spray. Immediately after spraying, insert wire cord into puppy's mouth and you can be sure he will never touch that again...

They'd die for some chocolate - Chocolate can be dangerous. It contains theobromine, a powerful stimulant that is toxic to pets. Sweets, cakes, and cookies can also upset a young animal's G.I. tract and lead to diarrhea and vomiting, which can be serious.


Treats can be threats - Never give turkey, chicken or rib bones as a treat. They can splinter and cause serious injury.


Common household killers - Cleaning agents, bleach, ammonia, disinfectants, drain cleaner, oven cleaner, paint, gasoline, rat poison. Keep them locked up.


Check the antifreeze - Pets are attracted to the odor and sweet taste of antifreeze. Store it high and tightly sealed, wiping up any spills on the garage floor. Window-washing solution also contains antifreeze.


Killer house plants - Poisonous plants include lilies, philodendron, dieffenbachia, elephant ear, eucalyptus, spider plants, azalea, ivy, amaryllis, pyracantha, oleander, boxwood, Jerusalem Cherry and plant bulbs... Check with your vet about all other plants and keep them high enough that your dog can't reach them.


Keep off the grass - If you treat your lawn with chemicals, keep pets away. Read and follow label directions carefully.


It fit yesterday - Puppies grow rapidly. Collars and harnesses can be rapidly outgrown, leading to serious wounds.


Take care of personal care items and medications - Cosmetics, shampoos, skin creams, hair "perm" solutions, depilatories, suntan lotions, sleeping pills, antihistamines, aspirin, and acetaminophen can all be lethal to pets.


It's not a toy - Don't leave plastic bags out. Inquisitive young animals can suffocate.


The heat is on - Watch out for hot irons, coffee pots and space heaters. Puppies can suddenly be able to jump to new heights.


Safety gates - Use safety gates on the stairs or rooms where you don't want your puppy to go.


A dip tip - Keep covers on hot tubs and swimming pools. Have a small fence around your pond. Young puppies can fall in and not be able to get out.


It is the season - Keep holly, mistletoe and especially Christmas tree tinsel out of reach.


Cozy up - Always use a fireplace screen.


Do you eat with that mouth? - Rule of thumb: If any or all of something will fit in a mouth, it is dangerous. Watch out for cigarette butts, rubber bands, balloons, sewing needles, thread, string, ribbons and, yes, even pantyhose. Because what goes in must come out, often via surgery.


      7b/ FIRST AID KIT

  • Tweezers

  • Phone number and directions for the closest 24-hour clinic

  • Antibiotic ointment for wounds

  • Gauze bandage and bandage tape

  • Wound disinfectant

  • Heavy towel or blanket to use as a stretcher

  • Benadryl for allergic reactions

  • Sterile saline, for flushing eyes

  • Disposable latex gloves

  • Muzzle 




Put your address and telephone number on the collar of your dog or cat. 

Always have a lead on your dog when you take him for a walk. If your cat needs A exercise a well-fitting puppy harness is better than a collar and lead.

Walk with your dog every day for exercise.

Stop and scoop when necessary.

Never leave your pet in your car alone. He could die from the heat in summer or the cold in winter.

Please remember that your pet is your best friend, who needs your care. Never Care let your dog run loose unattended.

Pet-napping does OCCUR.  Keep a watchful eye on your pet when it is outside your house.

Be certain your pet is in good health. All foreign countries and some states require current rabies and health certificates.

Acquaint your pet with travel beforehand, by taking it out on some short trips prior to your departure.

Before making hotel reservations be sure to check that pets are welcome.

Make absolutely sure that car windows are never opened enough to allow your pet to jump out of the car.

Have identification' on your pet. Cats are better on a well-fitting puppy harness, than a collar, and lead.

Never leave your pet unattended in a closed car during hot weather. Heat builds up rapidly in an enclosed space, resulting in heat stroke and death within a relatively short time. Carry a litter tray in your car for cats.

If motion sickness is a problem, medication is available to prevent it and calm your pet. Consult your veterinarian. It is better to restrict food and water before traveling.

Upon arrival, give food and water sparingly at first, but plenty of understanding and affection.  Never leave your pet outside unattended.




EQUIPMENT: Kennel(medium size) Delux or regular Crate for crate training (see the above article)

                       Xpen (Exercise Pen) - optional 2 ft. high x 2 ft. wide 8 panels - portable pen to use when there is no fenced                           area for the pup. 

                       Gate for kitchen or stairs 

                       Basket soft plush (when up is older 8-9 months and past teething)

                       2 Dishes - 1 for water, 1 for food 

                       Pooper Scooper 

                       Toys: Nylabones, Rope, Kong rubber toy, sheepskin toy. Supervise the pup when playing with a rope toy. Do not                           leave them in the kennel.  

                       Check that no parts of stuffed toys can come off (eyes, etc.)

                       Concentrate Cleaner. Do not use toxic cleaners on floors where the pup plays or in the kennel. Dish soap &                                 water work but doesn't remove the smell.


TRAINING EQUIPMENT: Leash for training - small and light for puppies

                                        walking extension leash

                                        Collar: Puppy - Nylon 3/8 wide = adjustable 9"-14" long;
                                        Adult- Nylon 5/8 wide snap & lock, adjustable;

                                        Choker Nylon for training

                                        Books/video -

                                        * "DOG OWNER'S HOME VETERINARY HANDBOOK" by James M. Giffin, MD & Liisa D. Carlson, DVM

                                        * "GOOD OWNERS, GREAT DOGS" by Brian Kilcommons & Sarah Wilson

                                        * "GOOD DOGS, BAD HABITS" by Jeanne Carlson with Ranny Green


GROOMING TOOLS: Comb - steel, desheding comb, brush - soft bristle 

                                 Tearless Puppy Shampoo

                                 Scissors - blunt end to slice mats in the hair

                                 Nail Clippers Regular Small - for pups, Larger, professional - for adults


FOOD & WATER: Water has to be available at all times

                             Don't change diet for first 2 weeks. If you change food do so very gradually over 10 days. Start with a                                   sprinkle of new food and gradually replace. Read ingredient labels.

                             Puppy treats(Puffed Rice or Milkbone type biscuits, small, plain, no flavors or colors)


HEALTH CARE SUPPLIES: Ear Cleaner from your Vet

                                             "Pyran" - or other deworming medication from your Vet.

                                             "Quick Stop" - Styptic powder to stop bleeding from cutting nails. 

                                             Toothpaste (from your vet or pet store)               

                                              Infant or Child Toothbrush




Day 1

The homecoming. Keep it calm, quiet, happy. Let the puppy meet only the people he will be living with - friends and neighbors come later. Introduce him to his exercise area - whether this is to be a newspaper or a part of the backyard.

Do not take him out on the street until he is immune to distemper and hepatitis.

Let him take his first nap in his crate.

Feed him according to the breeder's instructions - no departures - and take him out for toilet relief at least every two hours during the day.

An accident or two in the house? If he's confined to a puppy-proof area during the housebreaking time it's easily cleaned up.

Don't scold his mistakes but be sure to praise his successes mightily.


Day 2

First things first. Out to the relief station. Praise success. Back in for breakfast then out again.. Again praise performance. Give him a chew toy to play with - it saves the carpet and the furniture. He is going through his teething period and sore gums can be troublesome.

Phone or drop the breeder a note to advise how you are doing. Breeders take a continuing concern in the welfare of the puppies they sell. Make an appointment with a veterinarian.


Day 3

Exercise, feed, etc. Keep the appointment with the veterinarian.

Carry your puppy into the animal hospital and hold him on your lap while you are waiting to see the doctor. Animal hospitals are wonderful places, but they are also the institutions where sick dogs are treated. Your puppy could pick up an infection if he is allowed to sniff around the floor. His immunity to disease is not yet at a very high level.

Take along the breeder's health history of your puppy. Make appointments for future inoculations.


Day 4

Introduce your puppy to stairs. Chances are hi's lived on the level all his life and don't know much about a staircase. You might have to help him coordinate his descent. Puppies seem to manage climbing up stairs very well, but tackle the problem of getting back down again with one giant leap.


Day 5

Puppies grow rapidly and are under considerable stress while they are teething - a hard biscuit to chew on can help to ease teething discomfort.


Day 6

Making your puppy feel loved and secure in his new home is all very well but you don't want to give him the idea that you are a permanent fixture in the house. Leave him for a while.

Tuck him securely into his crate then go out. He may fuss a bit when he first realizes he's all alone in the big house. But he'll settle down and go to sleep in a few minutes.


Day 7

Isn't it time you two tried a little lead work? Fasten on the puppy's light collar, attach the lead and walk him - that is, try to walk him - around the house.

If he resists, coax him along. Be firm, but gentle. Praise him when he walks correctly. Keep the training session short - five minutes is long enough to start.


Day 8

Train again. If the puppy doesn't seem to want his collar on, try this. Each time you take him out of his crate for exercise, put on his collar and lead. Soon he'll begin to associate his walking gear with a pleasurable "out" and he will look forward to having his collar and lead put on.


Day 9

Try a little "grooming". Here again, keep the sessions short. use brush and comb as recommended by the breeder. If the puppy tries to nip the grooming tools - or your hand - tell him sharply "no". Don't let him get the upper hand. If he persists in snapping at the brush - repeat "no". Be sure to praise him when he behaves himself.


Day 10

Time for a real "walk". By now the puppy should have a safe level of immunity provided he received his first permanent distemper-hepatitis inoculation when he visited the veterinarian. Put on his collar and lead and take him for a short walk on the street. Reassure him about the traffic passing by.

Let him make friends with people but not with other dogs. And don't let him sniff at droppings or mouth unclean trash.


Day 11

The walks aren't going too badly but the puppy just seems too eager to meet people. He has begun to express his pleasure by jumping up and leaving dirty puppy pawprints on people's clothes. What to do?

This can develop into a real nuisance habit that should be nipped in the bud.

Tell him "OFF", and firmly pull his lead to remove him from the person. Allow him to approach again, each time correcting him. He will soon get the message.


Day 12

Maybe you are not quite the dog trainer you imagined. The puppy has begun to strain against the lead and lag. Better give some thought to obedience training.

Check with the local kennel club to find out about obedience classes and arrange to enroll your puppy t the first available series of lessons. You might also check with the local library. They probably have some books on the subject which could give you a headstart on the classes. Failing this, ask your breeder.


Day 13

This could be your puppy's lucky day. Introduce him to the common household hazard of the electrical cord. Do the ironing while the puppy plays around on the floor. Being attracted to anything that moves, he'll soon make a dive bite the cord. Correct him instantly. In this case, you may have to be "cruel to be kind" and give him a sharp tap on the rear if he persists in grabbing for the cord. Keep correcting the puppy until he gets the message that electrical cords are not for biting. To reinforce, repeat this lesson each time you do the ironing.


Day 14

If you have been faithful to the after-eating, after-every-nap and every two hours "out" schedule, by now you should be getting the occasional signal from the puppy. He may fidget and seem uncomfortable. He may even move towards the "out" door and make a puppy noise. This is your clue to get him outside on the double. And back at once he's excused himself. Another 14 days and the puppy should have more control over his toilet needs and you should be well on the road to having a housebroken puppy. All the praise, persistence and perseverence is begining to pay off.


Most dogs can be housebroken if owners are consistent and persistent in training; but, crate training simplifies the process even further. Crate training helps teach a dog the only acceptable place for elimination is outdoors. Dogs, when inside the house, are either crated or under supervised liberty until they learn the only acceptable place to eliminate is outside.

Crates are not "doggy jail cells". Most dogs come to think of their crate as "their room" and a place of retreat that gives them a sense of security. Dogs familiar with crating make better traveling companions and "kennel" more comfortably during stays at the veterinarian or at a boarding kennel, making these situations less stressful for the dog.


The basics are:

l.  Owners should have reasonable expectations;

2. The dog must be taken out regularly and frequently;

3. The dog must either be crated or fully supervised at all times until fully trained;

4. The dog should be rewarded for success. (You must remember that punishment may cause additional housebreaking     problems.)


What are reasonable expectations? The rule of thumb is that a puppy can hold its elimination needs for approximately one hour per month of age, up to a maximum of eight months/hours. However, the more often a dog is taken out in the early stages of housebreaking, the more effective your housebreaking efforts will be. A young puppy should be taken out frequently until it learns control. Even older dogs should be taken out frequently during housebreaking, because, although a grown dog can hold its eliminations for longer periods, it has no history of doing so and must be trained to do so.

Also, a dog's history may make it more difficult to housebreak. If a puppy or dog was kept in unclean conditions, i.e., where it urinated and defecated, prior to your obtaining it like in a puppy mill or pet shop, the dog probably never learned the importance of keeping its personal areas "clean". This can make housebreaking more difficult. Of course, housebreaking older dogs or bringing an "outdoor dog" indoors, may require extra patience.


To begin housebreaking always remember that the dog should be taken straight outside immediately after every period of confinement. If the dog relieves itself outside, allow it to play for up to 15 minutes in a confined area under close supervision, (15 minutes of excitement will probably cause the dog to need to relieve itself again, take it back outside.) If the dog does not relieve itself, return the dog to its kennel.


Some owners find such close supervision difficult. yet, it is critical to your housebreaking success. Such owners may want to use an "umbilical cord". (To make that cord, attach a leash to the dog's collar, thread a belt through the loop on the leash, and wear the belt around your waist.) This prevents the dog from wandering freely and allows an owner to supervise the dog while still having his/her hands-free to their tasks.


Dogs must be taken out soon after each feeding, usually within ten to fifteen minutes, and when they first wake up. Gradually, with age and over time, your dog will learn more control and can hold eliminations for longer periods. Then, you can reduce the number of required outings to 3 or 4 a day.


Pay close attention to your dog's behavior and you may notice that your dog gives you "signals" that it needs to go outside. These signs include circling, barking or whining, acting nervously, panting, pacing or moving toward the door.


Each time the dog is taken out of the crate, ask, "Do you have to go outside?" Immediately walk the dog straight to the door and take it outside. (Carrying a dog outside to eliminate teaches it to expect you to do so, instead encourage it to go outside on its own "paw power" to help the dog understand what the process is about. This helps to speed up the learning process significantly. In fact, if a doggy door leads to the elimination area, most dogs, even at 6-7 weeks, will learn to go out when the urge strikes in a relatively short time. Like the old saying goes: "Nothing teaches better than experience." Even when paper training indoor dogs, it's best to encourage the dog to go to its elimination area rather than to carry it there.

Use a leash if necessary to prevent "accidents". The dog must be taken outside frequently and praised for relieving itself outside. (If the dog must be left alone for any period of time, it is best to withhold food and water for an hour or 2 prior to leaving. Of course, you should take the dog outside to relieve itself immediately prior to your departure and upon return.

Do not leave food and water in the dog's crate during house training.


When "accidents" happen, and they will NEVER scold or punish the dog. It is acceptable to make a loud noise to distract or startle the dog but ONLY when it is actually in the process of relieving itself inside. The dog should then be taken outside immediately to an area the dog has used previously to remind it that outdoors is the only permissible place to go. (Ask your favorite pet store or veterinarian for a product to treat any "accident" spots. The product "Outright" is our personal favorite. Be sure to read and follow the directions.)


Problems that may effect housebreaking:


Size - small dogs "sense" of space is different than yours or a larger dog. Generally speaking, small dogs require more supervision in less space than a bigger dog might. The "umbilical cord" method described above is especially helpful when housebreaking small dogs.


* Some dogs are submissive by nature and will urinate as you approach them. This is the dog's way of acknowledging your superiority. If your dog is "submission wetting", keep interactions very low key. Do not punish the dog for this behavior as it will only aggravate the behavior.


Health problems, so, especially if the problem has just started in an older dog, you need to rule out his illness. Visit a veterinarian to ensure there is no physical reason causing the dog to eliminate in the house.


We offer an alternative to crating. If for any reason crating during the time it takes to house-break your dog is unacceptable to you, even though we believe crate training is the best and easiest method. We do not recommend crating as a primary or long terms means of containment for dogs.



Crates come in plastic, metal, and material netting and are available at most pet stores. A crate should be well-constructed with only enough space for the dog to rest comfortably, stand and turn around in.


Sometimes a dog, especially an older dog, may object to training. If your dog "throws a fit" and whines or barks, start a desensitization program by slowly introducing the dog to the crate. Tie the door of the crate open so there is no possibility of the door "accidentally" shutting on the dog. The dog's food bowl should be placed as close to the crate as the dog will go willingly. Every time the dog is fed its bowl should be moved a bit closer to the crate. Yes, you can break its food portion into several smaller portions to make this process go faster, i.e., feed the dog smaller portions 5 times a day rather than one time a day. Eventually, the bowl is placed right at the entrance of the crate. Then, slowly move the bowl to the back of the crate. If at any point the dog balks, put the bowl back where it was the previous day for a day or 2 and then start moving the bowl forward again. Do this until the food bowl is all the way in the back of the crate. Patience is the most important factor here.


When the dog is comfortable eating in the crate, close the door but do not lock it. The dog needs to learn it is not trapped in the crate because the door shuts. The dog should be able to nudge the door open and get out easily. Eventually, lock the door for brief periods with the dog in the crate while you give the dog treats. Increase the amount of time the dog stays in the crate slowly.


HINT: NEVER OPEN THE CRATE DOOR IF THE DOG IS WHINING OR BARKING, it will teach the dog to do so continually in the hope of getting out of the Kennel.


AGE 1-4 weeks: 

VETERINARY CARE: Usually none if the puppy is healthy. 

DEVELOPMENT: Eyes and ears open up at about day 10. Day 15 puppy can stand up. Day 20 pup begins to walk. Puppy still very much needs his mom. 

LEARNING: The puppy learns through a relationship with the mother. Important for close ties with others later on. 


AGE 4-8 weeks:

VETERINARY CARE: The first "permanent" shots at 7-8 weeks consist of the following: Distemper, Hepatitis, Parvo, Corona, and Parainfluenza Complex. Submit stool sample for worm analysis. A blood sample may be required to check for anemia. Get advice on puppy food and vitamins.

DEVELOPMENT: Mom begins to wean the pups. First teeth start to come in. Puppy likes contact with litter-mates.

LEARNING: The puppy learns to relate to other dogs and develops a pack hierarchy or "packing order" through play.


AGE 8-12 weeks:

VETERINARY CARE: Week 12 - second in a series of shots, will include repeats of the above.  Rabies vaccine can be given at 12 weeks. Don't allow vaccinating your puppy for Leptospirosis. Do your own research about the risk of this vaccine. Ask the vet to show you how to clip the pup's nails.

DEVELOPMENT: The puppy needs lots of human contact. Should be weaned and leave the mother (at the age of 8 weeks = international standard).

LEARNING: Learns to develop close ties with people. Lots of people contact at this age is very beneficial. Introduce collar. Start house-training. 


AGE 12-16 weeks: 

VETERINARY CARE: Week 16 - third in series of shots. Recheck stool for worms. 

DEVELOPMENT: The puppy's size increases rapidly and motor control is better developed. Likes the outside world.

LEARNING: Puppy learns confidence and how to handle new situations (such as going up and down stairs, going through doors...) 


AGE 4-6 months:

VETERINARY CARE: Spay females at 5-6 months. Neuter males at 5-6 months. Recheck stool for worms.

DEVELOPMENT: The puppy begins to lose puppy teeth - this means lots of chewing on things; be prepared - get him some chew sticks or rawhide bones. Most puppies can now be trusted through the night. 

LEARNING: Can learn the simple commands: sit, stay, come, down. Will know his own name. 


AGE 6-12  months: 

VETERINARY CARE: Re-vaccinate 1 year after the last puppy vaccine, and then every 3 years for the rest of the dog's life.  Discuss diet change with your vet. After spaying/neutering your puppy, change the diet from puppy food to adult formula.

DEVELOPMENT: Teething stage is mostly over. House-training complete. Most of the height growth is over but will fill out" more over the coming year. The dog begins to mature sexually; the male begins to lift a leg, and the female has a first heat period of anywhere from 6-12 months. The puppy coat is replaced by the more distinctive adult coat. 

LEARNING: Begin formal obedience training now with the use of a training collar. It is important to start a good behavior pattern at this time as the dog will not just outgrow those awful puppy habits (jumping up, mouthing, chewing, barking, etc.) unless you make him - this is doggy adolescence




Training is fun and very rewarding for you and your puppy.

Puppies have an amazing capacity to learn complex commands quickly.



1. Start training as soon as you obtain your puppy. Puppies learn very rapidly but their attention span may be short. It is     better to spend 10 to 15 minutes, twice daily.



2. Training should be conducted when the puppy is not excited and when the home environment is quiet. Once the puppy      has learned a response in one environment, move the training location to progressively more complex and                         stimulating environments. That is, the puppy will have to be trained in each environment which he will encounter.



3. Learning occurs more rapidly if one person trains the puppy at first. Once the puppy has learned the commands, have     other members of the family train him to respond to them as well. Train the puppy using one-word commands to             "come", "sit", "down", and "heal". Try not to use the puppy's name in association with the command. It is too

    distracting and slows the learning process.



4. Reward appropriate behavior as soon as possible after giving the command. (This is best done immediately). Give             valued rewards such as food, touch, and praise every time the puppy responds to a command. You will quickly

    learn which reward is most valued by your puppy. Once the response is learned, give the rewards intermittently.

    This will result in rapid learning and make the response more permanent.



5. If the puppy fails at any level of training, stop, don't reward. Start the training again at a simpler level. How                         consistently a puppy responds to a command is a result of the degree of training. If the puppy does not

    respond in an exciting environment or to your satisfaction, then more training is required.



6. Be patient; never punish. The opposite to a reward is "no reward". It is not punishment. The punishment that causes        pain or excitement does not work and generally causes problems. Punishment may also interfere with the owner-pet      relationship. If the puppy is doing something that is inappropriate, distract the pet, issue a command and reward this      response.

A trained puppy is a happier puppy and a great companion!



Some phrases the puppy may already know...

WAIT - when they are fussing and you are trying to open cage to let them outside;

OUTSIDE - to go outside to the bathroom;

HURRY UP - to go to the bathroom (or OUTSIDE - HURRY UP);


HEY -  said "emphatically" to distract them from doing something they shouldn't;

COME - to have them follow you or come towards you;

NO - said "emphatically" to stop them from doing whatever it is you don't want them to do;

QUIET - if fussing in cage and just wanting his own way;

BEDTIME - when put in his cage at bedtime or whenever (except for meal time);

NO - BEDTIME - QUIET - if won't go back to sleep after you have let him out in the middle of the night; (if he keeps fussing - repeat, tap cage, and walk away...);

ENOUGH - if holding him and he gets really wiggly (hold hands firmly on his back or hold both front legs and look into his eyes when you repeat the phrase);

NO BITING - if mouthing your hands etc. (don't allow this, correct very early, or you will have a nippy adult). Hold thumb in mouth and rest of hand under chin, apply slight pressure and repeat - NO BITING. Also, you can say very loudly - OW and he will stop not wanting to hurt you...



DOWN - to lay down;

OFF - to get off you - or stop jumping up at you. Don't give him attention when he does this, or they will always do it. He is telling you what the schedule will be ... or: Give me some attention -  you take charge and give him attention when you are ready, not when he decides it is time. He must learn that you decide when he gets his attention and that YOU ARE THE BOSS OR TOP DOG.

SETTLE DOWN - when getting too exuberant. Puppies are instinctive to "pack order" and sees the family as his "Pack" now. He has to learn that he is LAST on the pecking order scale and that  ALL  the humans are above him.

LEAD TRAINING - the pup has never had a collar or a lead around his/her neck before you took it home. Initiate this in a gentle but firm manner. Do not tolerate his antics of displeasure.

Be firm and consistent with discipline training. Don't let those sad big eyes and "poor me" expression con you. 



You must mold your puppy's behavior to suit YOUR own acceptability level, the Breeder cannot do this for you at 2 months of age. Do not tease or scare your puppy. You will only make a timid insecure dog out of your puppy. Correction should be FIRM & CONSISTENT and done with an authoritative tone. NEVER yelled or screamed at, this only scares them and serves no purpose. They would have only been intimidated and scared by this action instead of corrected.


NOTE: "dew claws (5th toe on forelegs or front legs) have not been removed. Remember to cut same when cutting the toenails.





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